The Copernican Geological Revolution

first_img(Visited 101 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0 The Copernican Revolution did not just affect astronomy and physics: it revolutionized geology.  So argued Walter Alvarez in Geology this month.1  Geologists usually talk rocks in their rags, but Alvarez (the one who brought impacts into extinction theories) decided to play historian.  With Henrique Leitao, he announced, “we argue that the Copernican Revolution represented not only a revolution in astronomy and physics, but also a radical change in understanding the Earth.”    Part of their motivation seems to be to extend the history of their discipline.  “Many geologists think of geology as a young science that originated about 1800,” they said.  Apparently it would be more prestigious for geologists to sink their roots deeper into intellectual history.  To do that, though, Alvarez and Leitao have to navigate geology through multiple upheavals: the plate tectonics revolution of the late 1900s, the Darwinian revolution of the late 1800s, the Hutton revolution of the late 1700s – and now, the Copernican revolution of the late 1500s.  (Not much happened in the 1600s geologically except for the foundational work in stratigraphy by Nicholas Steno around 1669.)    The authors acknowledged the revolutions in philosophy and history of science of the 20th century; they mentioned Kuhn, Laudan, Lakatos, Rudwick, and others.  They had to justify the word “revolution” to make their case that geology has foundations in Copernicus.  This was made somewhat more difficult by the fact that the word geology was not invented till after Copernicus (1603) and was not widely used till about 1800.  Nevertheless, they felt that the Copernican system led to a new view of the earth: “there has never been any serious reason since then to think that Earth is not a planet.”  This contrasts sharply with the earth view of Aristotle and Ptolemy, they argued.  The “recognition that Earth is not compositionally different from celestial bodies” was important for the founding of geology as a science: it was the Copernican revolution “that gave Earth its personality and its independence and finally made it a worthy object of study.”    Alvarez and Leitao tried to recreate the world view of the medieval mind.  Planets were wandering stars, points of light that moved in complicated patterns against the stars, which were perfect celestial objects embedded in crystalline spheres.  The Earth meant different things to different people.  “In Medieval Christianity, Earth was a temporary abode for human beings prior to the Day of Judgment,” they said; “For philosophers, earth was one of four elements, along with air, fire, and water, which made up the terrestrial globe.”  Whatever one thought, nobody believed till Copernicus that the Earth was a planet.  “It is difficult today to recapture that alien worldview, but we may imagine that ‘Earth’ and ‘planet’ had as little to do with each other then as, for example, ‘Pangea’ and ‘B-flat minor’ do today,” they quipped.  Then Copernicus comes, and now Earth is a planet!  “It was as if we were to learn that Pangea was written in B-flat minor.”  (Wasn’t that a march by John Phillip Sousa?)    Seeing the earth as a planet orbiting under physical laws of motion opened the way for using it as a natural laboratory, Alvarez and Leitao said; “It is difficult to imagine a more profound change in the understanding of the Earth, or to envision a serious science of the Earth that does not recognize that Earth is a planet.”  They spent most of their conclusion clearing up confusion about the Copernican clich�:In addition, contrary to what is commonly believed, we now know that in the eyes of its contemporaries, the Copernican Revolution glorified the Earth, making it an object worthy of study, in contrast to the preceding view, which demeaned the Earth.  Ironically, the Copernican Revolution is almost invariably portrayed today as having demoted the Earth from a position at the center of the universe, the main concern of God, to being merely one of the planets.  Danielson2 (2001) made a compelling case that this portrayal is the opposite of what really happened, i.e., that before the Copernican Revolution, Earth was seen not as being at the center, but rather at the bottom, the cesspool where all filth and corruption fell and accumulated.  The revolution changed that view, as can be seen in a quote from Galileo, speaking as his alter ego Salviati, in Dialogue of the Two World Systems: “As for the earth, we seek…to ennoble and perfect it when we strive to make it like the celestial bodies, and, as it were, place it in heaven, from whence your philosophers have banished it” (see Danielson, 2001, p. 1032).    Danielson (2001) showed how historians came to misinterpret this glorification of the Earth as a demotion, an erroneous change of interpretation embodied in the now almost universal viewpoint that he called the “Copernican clich�.”  It is difficult to imagine a science of geology developing when Earth was considered an accumulation of filth and corruption.  The post-Copernican Earth, ennobled and perfected, became an object worthy of study by the emerging science of geology.In the acknowledgements, Alvarez credited a “2007 visit of three Portuguese historians of science to Berkeley that triggered this study”.  His thesis can be summed up thus, “With the advantage of hindsight, we realize that recognizing Earth as a planet was a precondition for understanding the universe.  When that recognition destroyed the Aristotelian view that Earth is fundamentally different from celestial bodies, the Earth could become a laboratory for studying the universe.”  The science of geology, therefore, can extend its origins to the Copernican revolution.1.  Walter Alvarez and Henrique Leitao, “The neglected early history of geology: The Copernican Revolution as a major advance in understanding the Earth,” Geology, v. 38 no. 3, p. 231-234, doi: 10.1130/G30602.1.2.  D. R. Danielson, 2001, “The great Copernican clich�,” American Journal of Physics, v. 69, p. 1029�1035, doi: 10.1119/1.1379734.To his credit, Alvarez helped clear up the misinterpretation of the Copernican revolution being a demotion; this was a point emphasized in The Privileged Planet, in which Danielson himself appeared to clarify the historical record.  It would have been nice to chastise Carl Sagan a little bit for misconstruing the medieval world view in Cosmos so badly for his millions of viewers, but at least this article agreed with Danielson.  And Alvarez did not use his article to bash Christians and creationists.  Still, there are a number of problems.    For one, he used fairly broad brushes to portray historical views.  Any period was likely to have many dissenting opinions.  It’s doubtful that nobody ever thought of studying the earth before Copernicus.  Could any traveler climb the mountains or cross the deserts without wondering about them?  Many people may have studied the earth without leaving written records.  A good historian of science would probably find many examples in ancient writings through to the middle ages displaying early “geological” thinking.  Are we to believe, too, that every Christian before Copernicus held their nose at the Earth as a pit of wretched filth?  Read Psalm 96, Psalm 104 and Psalm 148.  See if those hymns of praise to the Creator of the earth are so dismissive.  Notice that these were all written long after Genesis, even though the Hebrew authors knew about the curse and the judgment of God.  They still saw the creation of the natural order as a beautiful, wonderful, source of awe and joy.  Psalm 111:2 said, “Great are the works of the LORD, studied by all who delight in them.”  That verse alone should have liberated science many centuries before geology was born.  It is wrong, therefore for Alvarez to allege that the Earth was “ennobled and perfected” by Copernicus.  It was ennobled long ago by the Bible.    A central hold-up to serious study of the earth was that the medieval church became wedded to Aristotelian and Ptolemaic concepts that were not Biblical.  There is nothing in the Bible about crystalline spheres.  There is nothing that rules out the Earth as a planet.  There is nothing that says that all the filth and corruption finds its place at the center, where Earth is located.  Those all came out of pagan Greek philosophy.  Jeremiah taught that the stars were innumerable.  There are indications in Job and elsewhere that creation follows natural laws.  Jesus referred to the beauty of birds and wildflowers, and used them as examples of God’s care for his creation.  To the extent “Medieval Christianity” was anti-scientific (a dubious proposition to those who know their history), their mistakes cannot be traced to the Bible.  (Note: three statements in the Psalms that “the earth shall not be moved” are not talking about geology or physics, but about God’s sovereign rule over the earth; they have nothing to do with the question of earth’s physical motion.)    There are also some non-sequiturs in the proposition that nothing serious could be done in geology before Copernicus.  It’s not clear that one has to see the earth as a planet to study it.  Any medieval person, or Roman or Egyptian for that matter, could have picked up rocks, wondered about fossils, and examined other real-life geological phenomena.  Maybe more of them did than we know.  Maybe they didn’t write down their ideas.  Whatever we think about the stars, we humans all walk on the ground, and curiosity is a normal human trait.  Seeing the connection of the Earth to other celestial bodies might enhance understanding of the Earth, but not seeing it does not preclude investigation.  Consider that comparative planetary geology in our own day did not really begin in earnest till Mariner 4’s flyby of Mars in 1964, long after geology was established as a science.  Geology was not held up till Copernicus arrived.    Two of the most serious flaws in this article are the myth of progress and the assumption of deep time.  “During the geological revolution” of the late 18th and early 19th centuries],” he said, “geologists recognized that Earth has a long, complicated history that is recorded in rocks, and learned to read that history and to date those rocks using fossils.”  That’s an overly simplistic characterization.  Actually, the assumption of deep time was a choice, not a discovery.  Geologists did not recognize millions of years.  They needed them to back up anti-Scriptural interpretations.  This is clear from the writings of Buffon, Hutton and Lyell, who wished to liberate science from Moses.  Steno was a creationist, but the 18th-century founders of geology determined a priori that nothing in Scripture could be used in the interpretation of the rocks.  Thus the only potential eyewitness accounts of earth history were ruled out of court.  That’s objective science for you.    Early geologists jumped on that bandwagon and scorned the “scriptural geologists” as old fuddy-duddies out of touch with the new fad.  They set to work fabricating an artificial framework for interpreting strata, assigning them the millions of years needed to fulfill Hutton’s vision of an ancient planet with no Creator and no Flood.  There is nothing written on the Cambrian layers Sedgwick and Darwin found at Wales that shouts out “550 million years old!”  (On the contrary, there is a lot to suggest otherwise.)  Darwin became the leader of the band, and now we have this ossified bandwagon called the Geologic Column that has become the cart pulling the horse in university geology departments today.  What are the chances it corresponds with reality?  To answer that, one only need consider the other major flaw in Alvarez’s article, the myth of progress.    Notice the first major subheading: “Major Advances in Understanding the Earth.”  How much do we understand the earth?  That’s a loaded question.  We tend to see science as progressive because of the very clear evidence of technological progress: we have cell phones; our great grandparents didn’t.  Nobody questions that kind of progress.  But when you ask whether we really understand a scientific phenomenon, the assumption of progress is na�ve.  One of the ideas Dr. Stephen Goldman emphasizes in his Teaching Company lecture series “Science Wars” (see Resource of the Week for 12/19/2009) is that science has a historical character.  This is not the same as progress; it means that scientific ideas and concepts are relevant to the time periods in which they are expressed.  The “earth” means something very different today than it did 100 years ago – and 100 years before that.  In 1900, he says, Earth was a basically static globe with occasional volcanoes and earthquakes.  Now, geologists believe tectonic plates are moving all over the place and colliding, and catastrophism is back with a vengeance.  You need to ask the follow-up question: how confident can we be that 100 years from now, geologists would have anywhere near the same theories and concepts of the earth as we do today, considering the fact that at each time in history, the intelligentsia were confident their concepts were correct?  Our concepts of the universe have changed even more dramatically from what they were in 1900 – more so, arguably, than after the Copernican Revolution.  We didn’t even know about external galaxies before 1923.  Each branch of science has a similar story to tell.  Physics was pretty much locked up in the late 1800s except for refining a few decimal places, then boom! relativity and quantum mechanics changed everything.     The basic question is whether our scientific theories provide a view of nature that is True with a “capital T” – or is at least progressing toward that truth.  Notice that truth is not the same thing as explanation, prediction, or control.  Our theories can provide those things, but so did ancient Greek and Egyptian theories that are now known to be incorrect.  Regarding control, the Egyptians built the pyramids with false views of nature.  And prediction can be misleading; the fallacy of “assuming the consequent” dogs scientific reasoning (theory predicts A, A happens, therefore theory is correct – ignores other successful theories).  Explanation can be little more than storytelling.  Geologists today should not be na�ve to think that their ability to explain, predict and control nature with current theories means that their theories are true.    Much of geology deals with phenomena that are not observable (e.g., the core of the earth, earth origins and history).  Even the phenomena accessible to observation produce theories subject to major revisions.  The same issue of Geology this month has a paper about alluvial fan formation that overturns a previous theory that had overturned one before that, and supports the earlier theory.  Is that progress, or rather a swinging pendulum?  Some liken scientific progress to the path of a hunting dog.  A bloodhound may wander from left to right, but the resultant vector shows progress as he hones in on the scent.  Even so, how do you know you are on the right trail?  Maybe when the dog catches up with the suspect, it will be the wrong culprit, and the forensic team would have to start over.    The point is that even if you see progress in explanation, prediction or control, it does not mean your scientific efforts are converging on the Truth.  Neither does it mean so if you have thousands of PhDs pursuing the consensus paradigm, munching croissants at huge AGU conventions, and teaching textbook science to undergrads using calculus.  Geological theories of the earth go far, far beyond what can be verified through observation.  In the years between Buffon and Lyell, a priori decisions were made to disregard Scripture as having any relevance to geology.  Suppose historians decided to build a theory of Rome by deciding in advance to disregard all texts and inscriptions, and only studying monuments and ruins.  Suppose they won over all the universities and journals with this approach.  Imagine them celebrating their Enlightenment, their independence from the slavery to texts.  Would they be likely to make much progress toward the true history of Rome?  Consider that none of the following accoutrements to a paradigm have any necessary connection to its truth:The number of experts promoting a view (10,000 Frenchman can be wrong)The tightness of the camaraderie binding supporters of a view togetherThe prestige of the institutions supporting the viewThe reputation of the journals doing the publishingThe number of journal articles published (10,000 lies don’t add up to a truth)The length of time a view has been believed (Ptolemaic astronomy lasted 1500 years)The dazzle of the charts, graphics and textbooks availableThe quality of animations in TV documentaries produced to illustrate the viewThe denseness of the jargon used in discussing the viewThe cleverness of the classification schemes employedThe chutzpah of its supportersThe political power of its supportersThe ability of its leaders to demonize and marginalize oppositionThe incompetence of some of the view’s detractors (they could still be right)The ability of its proponents to win court casesThe dignity of the conferences held in support of the viewThe view’s success at explanation, prediction and controlWhat matters is evidence.  Eyewitness testimony is evidence.  Rather than ruling out that class of evidence for geology, the question 18th-19th century geologists should have considered was the reliability of the only Eyewitness available.  Sedgwick and Lyell and others tried to hang on to their Christian God, but they abandoned his Word, leaning on their own understanding (Prov 3:5-6).  They also dismissed the greatest witness of all – Jesus Christ – who taught creation and the Flood (Matthew 24:38-29).  By cutting off their authority at the knees, they have been hobbling around on stumps in shifting sand, thinking it was progress.  Not all motion is progress.  Some is just commotion.last_img read more

Celebrate International EarthCache Day – Geocaching.com Weekly Newsletter

first_imgExplore the Secrets of the EarthJoin the International EarthCache Day celebration on October 14. Each EarthCacheteaches visitors about the playground all geocachers enjoy – the earth. An EarthCache takes adventurers to a unique site showcasing geological features. Simply discover and log an EarthCache, or attend an EarthCaching event, this Sunday to take part in the worldwide movement.EarthCaches can reveal why a giant boulder came to rest in the middle of a prairie or how a river flows in two opposite directions in one day. Instead of finding a container at an EarthCache, geocachers learn and report their geology discovery to log a smiley.There are now more than 14,000 active EarthCaches around the globe. Go to the official Geocaching.com Facebook page to share your International EarthCache Day experience.Share with your Friends:More SharePrint RelatedGroundspeak Weekly Newsletter – July 4, 2012July 5, 2012In “Groundspeak’s Weekly Newsletter”Your Next Souvenir Reveals Mysteries of the EarthSeptember 8, 2014In “Geocaching Weekly Newsletter”The Aare Gorge | Aareschlucht | Gorges de l’Aar – GC1YH51 – GEOCACHE OF THE WEEK – October 11, 2012October 11, 2012In “Community”last_img read more

Apple Updates FCPX, Attempts to Win Back Pro User Base

first_imgApple continues to update their Final Cut Pro X video editing application, with the 10.0.8 adding new features and addressing performance issues.Video editors that cried two years ago that “Apple isn’t dedicated to the pro user!” after the release of FCPX, may have to rethink their position. Since its release it has received continuous updates to improve performance, as well as add new (and missing features) that make it more usable for pro video editing. The recent FCPX 10.0.8 update continues to improve the app and offer more features for the professional user (list of new features with 10.0.8 update below).A recent LA Times article stated that Apple is now planning to squarely target their professional userbase, including video editors that they may have initially lost with the release of Final Cut Pro X.  The new “FCPX In Action” marketing series will focus on professional video editors and producers that are employing a FCPX workflow with success.  It will be interesting to see if this marketing push, coupled with the ongoing app updates, is enough to sway video editors that Apple is in fact committed to their pro userbase. (Image from Apple.com)Final Cut Pro X 10.0.8 UpdateSupport for Sony XAVC codec up to 4K resolutionOption to display ProRes Log C files from ARRI ALEXA cameras with standard Rec. 709 color and contrast levelsResolves an issue where some third-party effects generated green frames during renderResolves performance issues that could occur with certain titles and effectsTime reversed clips render in the backgroundAbility to use key commands to adjust Clip Appearance settings in the timelineAbility to view reel number metadata located in the timecode track of video filesMono audio files in a surround project export with correct volume levelsDrop zones no longer reset to the first frame of video after application restartFixes a performance issue which resulted from selecting multiple ranges on a single clipFixes an issue where the Play Around function did not work properly on certain clips when viewed through external video devicesAre you using FCPX?Share your thoughts/comments/experiences below!last_img read more

HubSpot TV – Ending the Year Right With Guest Host @Pamelump

first_img Watch at . Fashionista htm . “Puttingthe idea in consumers’ heads that Yahoo is a company that will makenavigating the world simpler and cheaper” is “brilliant.” What’s your role on the marketing team Dominos http Google online . .” . tv Avoid losing search rankings by regularly updating your site’s content. Keep it fresh. Intro Originally published Jan 8, 2010 1:30:00 PM, updated July 04 2013 . employees totell the story of how  and  “DespiteDominos’ negative experience with social media earlier this year, whichinvolved the explosion of a Brilliant Holiday Marketing Stunt “The goal is to get one million people to participate.” itunes :// ! ingredients, the brand is now embracingthe channel to promote its brand with its new Pizza Turnaroundcampaign.” “In fact, the studyfinds that the influx of new technologies is causing us to read evenmore than we used to, revealing that reading has actually tripledbetween 1980 and 2008.” “To launch its “turnaround,” Meerman has created anew website, Headlines “Although the written word may beknocking at death’s door in the world of print publishing, it’scertainly alive and thriving on the World Wide Web.” Dominos Marketing Takeaway listened to its critics and is changingits pizza recipe for the better.” hubspot and others, andfewer for reporters from regional newspapers that can no longer affordthe expense of covering the runways independently.” “StartingJanuary 1, 2010 when you sign up on Disney’s website to volunteer a dayof service with one of the many organizations listed, Disney will giveyou a voucher for a free 1-day, 1-park ticket to either Disneyland orWalt Disney World as a way of thanking you for your tv Facebook Asthe new year rolls in pay attention to what other companies are doingright and wrong, be adventurous and take risks in your marketing.  video showing two employees doingrepulsive things with How to interact on Twitter:  Today’s Special Guest Host: Pamela . pamelump HubSpot How Subscribe in , especially among families, and the benefits you receivewill extend beyond the 1-day, 1-park ticket. You’ll make someheart-felt memories while at the same time helping those who reallyneed your help.” Dominos HubSpot Things they’re doing right: transparency, listening to customers, using various social media tools – “What are some tips and strategies for increasing www David nytimes Strategies for increasing Marketing Takeaway , David Back to our normal schedule next week with special guest .” , Focus on business blogging to take advantage of this increased reliability on the @ @ page interactions within your fans?” Studyfindings: “Generic terms against long tail terms in Caffeine show agreater priority for News, Information and Social Media – which fitswith generic terms being less clear in terms of the searcher’s intent.” online Caffeinated “Disneyhas really hit a home run with this amazing opportunity by encouraging www The Pizza Turnaround (Episode Length: 17 minutes, 21 seconds) : We’re starting to see a recurring trend in using is Using Customer Feedback and Social Media Outreach to Reinvent Its Brand Dominos Yahoo’s Holiday Marketing Stunt & Disney’s “Give a Day. Get a Disney Day.” Campaign “Give a Day. Get a Disney Day.” Promotion Kicks Off 2010  Don’t forget to share this post! AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to Email AppEmail AppShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to MessengerMessengerShare to SlackSlack , in your tweet. Learn how to generate more inbound leads using SEO, blogging, and social media. Fashiontoast – As the world of marketing changes you have to be flexible and adaptable. online Meerman Fashionologie Marketing Team (see above) that uses real University of San Diego Study volunteerism Caffeine Launch pizzaturnaround ” TV live today, Friday January 8th at 4:00pm ET. “But it issomewhat surprising that designers are adjusting to the new breed of Inbound Lead Generation Kit Social media is a great channel for customer feedback to help improve your brand. . Forum Fodder Marketing Takeaway: “On Dec. 23, Yahoo sent employees to the San Francisco and San Jose airports to pay for airline customers’ baggage fees” http hubspot will be on AYahoo rep called the stunt “one small act of kindness,” saying they”hope[d] to inspire the Yahoo community to create a wave of goodwill.”  Facebook and . . , ! .” volunteerism “Itwill significantly speed up how fast Marketing Tip of the Week: Download the free kit .com/2009/12/27/fashion/27BLOGGERS. Dominos Episode #73 – December 23, 2009 and “giving back” as a marketing tactic. Marketing Takeaway 2: Is About To Get  conductedin September by SEO firm Summit Media suggests that for generic searchterms, Caffeine gives more weight to news and social media results,while more specific keywords are more likely to turn up websites aboutthat topic.” NOTE FROM THE PRODUCERS:Special Guest :  How the Web is Saving the Written Word From the Brink of Death Scott Dominos Google for tips and tricks to drive more leads and business to your site. HubSpot Marketing Takeaway: “Atthe shows this year, there were more seats reserved for editors from Diegodispels written word by consumers. realtime is encouraging consumers to try the new pizza and offer feedback via social media like Twitter, YouTube Use any opportunity to create great content. Volunteer to give back asa company and create blog posts, post photos, interview people, and puteverything YouTube With A Faster Search Index karenrubin Fashionair :// Google’s YouTube can present results,especially across different media types such as photos and videos.Overall, search will be more independent study tv “An Google Bloggers Beat Out Magazines in the Fashion World Study findings: “Rankings are unlikely tofluctuate. Websites that do lose rankings are likely to be relying onolder, archived content that’s not been updated in years. Keeping yoursite fresh to be crawled by Caffeine will be important_.”_ recent rumorthat the written word has died due to the rise of the more visuallystimulating media like video and images.”  search index algorithms.” “Most people won’t even notice the change.” How did you win the poll to be on today’s show? www volunteerism Scott “Caffeine is an under-the-hood upgrade to www Padley Pat Facebook .com, which features a new videodocumentary on  with Yahoo’s Closing page interactions? Marketing Takeaway: iTunes reporter more readily than magazines, which have been slow toadapt to the demand for instant content about all things fashion. Blogsare posting images and reviews of collections before the last modelexits the runway, while magazine editors are still jockeying to featurethose clothes in issues that will be published months later.” “Anew study conducted by the University of San Seiplelast_img read more

Facebook Plugins in Real Life [Cartoon]

first_imgVideo: How to Use Social Media to Attract More Customers Don’t forget to share this post! AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to Email AppEmail AppShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to MessengerMessengerShare to SlackSlack Learn how to use social media to attract more customers. Topics: Facebook Marketingcenter_img and learn how to generate more business using social media. Originally published May 6, 2010 8:00:00 AM, updated October 20 2016 Download the free videolast_img

6 Lessons for Spreading Ideas from TED

first_img Which of the lessons above is the most important for you? – Spreading ideas isn’t easy. As a marketer, you should seek out leaders in your organization that can support the content your business needs. 5. Evoke Contagious Emotions June Cohen, executive producer at – Mobile content is crtical. When planning for mobile content, you have to think about it from the very begining of production. For example, use tight close up shots for videos that will be viewed on a mobile device. Topics: 4. Start Strong Marketing Takeaway 2. Embrace Open Models In five years, 900 talks have been posted online and have been viewed 400 million times worldwide. More than half of the videos are viewed on TED.com but the other nearly 50 percent are viewed through YouTube, embeddable players and downloads. According to Cohen, allowing an embeddable version of your content is the most important thing your can do to allow your content to spread. In 2006, TED launched its videos online as podcasts and in 2007, TED launched a website for conference videos. It was scary because it took TED from an exclusive club to an open media channel consumed by millions. They worked against the basic principles of business and ignored the conventions of a luxury brand. After releasing content for free, TED Events actually sold out faster at a higher price. The goal of this openness was to spread ideas, and that had an unplanned impact on the business. , took the stage in Austin, TX at South By South West Interactive to talk about radical openness and spreading ideas. TED was orginally founded in 1984 as a conference to celebrate technology, entertainment and design. In 2006, TED put all its Talk videos online for free and they have gained tremendous popularity, delighting 100 million viewers each year. Don’t forget to share this post! AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to Email AppEmail AppShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to MessengerMessengerShare to SlackSlack – One of the hidden keys for TED Talks is starting strong. It is critical to grab users’ attention from the very second the presenters start talking. TED does this by editing out all introductions from the videos that they share on their website. Inbound Marketing – No matter where your customers are and how they access information, it is critical that they have the option to learn from your business. 6. Find Visionaries to Support Great Content Spreading ideas is an important goal for any business. As ideas spread, so does the reach of your business. While increasing reach starts with great content, the simple rules outlined above in this post can help you think about making your content better and more accessible. Originally published Mar 14, 2011 5:00:00 PM, updated July 11 2013 TED TED changed its business from an elite gathering to an open ecosystem. As TED opened up its content, it started to challenge itself. At SXSW, TED launched an API to provide access to developers who want to build apps with TED content. Cohen admits that becoming radically open is scary and hard to do. However, she noted, thanks to this openness TED has been able to grow in a way that would have never been possible. 1. Reach People Everywhere -TED released its videos under creative commons, even though that meant giving up control of their content and brand. As a business, consider ways that allow others to build on your content and ideas. 3. Designing for Small Screen – Elevation is an important emotion that many marketers ignore. Elevation is when people have a reaction to a piece of content that makes them feel like they have a higher purpose. The contagious emotions that people get when watching TED talks inspires them to share the content. Cohen gave the video below as an example of content that evokes powerful emotion and elevation.last_img read more

How Marketers Should Leverage New Marketing Technologies [Marketing Update]

first_img Marketing Takeaway: Marketing Takeaway: adapt your content to all mobile devices Facebook Amazon has launched a new tablet called the Kindle Fire, which will definitely be in close competition with the iPad. It’s almost certain that the Kindle Fire will become mainstream due to its affordable $199 price tag, full Kindle ebook functionality, video, music, and full-color web browsing. Recent reviews state that the Kindle Fire is an excellent choice for consumers looking for a tablet that can be used for entertainment purposes. , Karen and Mike sat down and talked about new technology for marketers: Kindle Fire, Google+ for all, and Google Analytics. Kindle Makes Tablet Ownership More Accessible tool. In a nutshell, marketers should choose tools based on their business goals. Topics: and figure out how to present your brand in a condensed and animated manner via apps, downloads, and advertisements. Social Media Marketers Google+ Boosts User Base , it reached 40 million users. This influx of users occurred after Google changed its approach by explaining how “you don’t have to be some tech connected person to use us.” Even though Google+ has seen a 1,269% increase in traffic, they are still not seen as a major threat to Facebook’s reported 800 million account base. However, if Google+ continues to attract more users at this rate, there could be shift in social media authority between Facebook and Google.  Google’s latest tracking tools are best suited for media companies that produce breaking stories that gain a lot of traffic to their site. However, the tools lack in their overall marketing analytics reporting. So if you’re looking to collect closed loop marketing data and consolidate your reporting efforts with aggregate data from various channels, you’ll need a more sophisticated, Google+ still hasn’t released features that would enable companies to create business accounts/pages on its social network, making it currently less applicable to marketers than other social networks likecenter_img integrated marketing analytics Google Analytics Goes Real Time . That said, Google is planning to release business pages soon, which means marketers should become accustomed to the social network through their personal accounts so they are familiar with the ins and outs and can be ready to quickly create business pages when they become available. Originally published Oct 3, 2011 8:00:00 PM, updated October 20 2016 Last week on Marketing Update What do you think of some of the latest technological advances available to marketers? Google Analytics is a tracking tool used by website operators to study the traffic patterns of websites. Recently, Google added its first real-time traffic tracker, eliminating the lag time for full data reporting. Its real-time data feature reveals your site’s active-visit count and creates consolidated reports that combine data, making it easier for users to understand. Google also now offers a new Analytics Premium Package, which will charge users for its services. The Analytics Premium Package is intended for larger companies looking for more data collection and additional modeling tools. Marketing Takeaway: The demand for mobile device innovation is constantly growing, and the Kindle Fire’s $199 price tag and features should drive new customers to adopt this product. Mike and Karen advise that you Google made its social network available to everyone Google+ gained 25-30 million users during its invitation-only period. Once Don’t forget to share this post!last_img read more

Apple Money on the Table for Companies That Get Personalization Right

first_img Originally published Aug 16, 2013 11:00:00 AM, updated February 01 2017 Personalization in Marketing Yesterday, TechCrunch reported that Apple acquired video programming recommendation site Matcha. And it wasn’t for their smarts (though I’m sure they are very smart, indeed).Matcha built a personalization engine that Apple couldn’t say no to — they wanted that product under their roof.Thing is, Matcha is pretty small potatoes — in size and revenue. Small acquisitions aren’t uncommon for Apple and, as TechCrunch notes, often go with little or no media attention. But Matcha was acquired for somewhere between $10 and $15 million.Wow. Looks like personalization pays.TechCrunch notes that this wasn’t a hiring acquisition: “This was about the product Matcha built and about the specific recipe for video recommendations it put together via its proprietary algorithm.” And it wasn’t just Matcha trying to figure this personalization stuff out — they’re competing against several other companies in just the video programming recommendation space, alone. But Matcha was able to figure out how to surface excellent content choices for the user, without bombarding them with too much to choose from. That balance between choice and guidance, driven by context, was key to their personalization success.This of course speaks to consumer demand. Apple is a consumer-focused company. They solve for the user, because it makes them money. Their acquisition of Matcha will hopefully help them be able to surface more TV shows and movies for their customers to download — and bolster the Apple TV product.In other words, Apple knows there’s big money in personalization, so they’ll pay big money to be the first ones to figure it out in their space.There are big bucks out there for companies that get personalization right. You know what they say: Give the people what they want.Image credit: calamity_photography Don’t forget to share this post! AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to Email AppEmail AppShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to MessengerMessengerShare to SlackSlack Topics:last_img read more

How to Optimize Your Emails for Gmail’s New Image-Heavy Inbox

first_img Topics: Email Templates A few weeks ago, we reported that Gmail was experimenting with a brand new, Pinterest-like design for its Promotions tab.Because the image-heavy design was so new and none of us had access to it yet, there was little more for us to say about it other than “it’s coming.” Well a few days ago I was lucky enough to be granted beta access (boy did I feel special)!(If you missed the initial announcement or you just need to jog your memory, you can check out our initial post about the new feature here.)My feelings of special-ness did a complete 180 when I realized how our blog’s subscriber emails look in this new format …Download the free stock photos you’ve been searching for here, no attribution required.See that little guy called out in the bottom right corner? That’s our blog subscriber email. Umm … yuck.This may not seem like a huge deal now, since only certain beta users have access to this feature (you can request your own access here). But once Gmail rolls it out to all, surely you’ll want your email to be optimized for the new design.Something had to be done about the look of our emails, so I put on my detective hat and consulted with the HubSpot product developers about how we could make our emails look as great as those of Etsy, Crate & Barrel, Joss & Main, and LivingSocial in this new layout. (Pay attention, Groupon and Vistaprint …)How to Control What Image Shows Up in Gmail’s Promotion TabWhile Gmail uses an algorithm that tries to determine the most relevant image from your email to display, if it can’t find one it likes, your email will likely be shown with some icky alt text instead of an image — like ours looks in the screenshot above. And even if Gmail does find an image it likes, it might not be the image you want to feature. Luckily, if you implement Gmail’s markup and have just a teensy bit of HTML savviness, it’s easy to control what image appears with your email in Gmail’s Promotions tab — as long as you can access the HTML of your email. This should be the case with most email service providers, including HubSpot’s Email tool. Before we start, make sure any image you choose to feature is at least 580 pixels x 400 pixels. Gmail will resize larger images down, but smaller images need to be at least these dimensions to get featured. Designating Images on the Email Template Level Any email platform that provides customizable token-based templates (including HubSpot) allows you to use a token as an image URL parameter. That way, you can add Gmail’s HTML markup to your email templates. This is great for emails like blog subscriber emails that are automatically generated and sent frequently. Just keep in mind that designating the image on the template level will mean every email sent using that template will display the same image in Gmail’s Promotions tab — unless you override it in individual sends (more on that in a minute). Setup on the template level will differ depending on what email platform you’re using, but to give you a sense of how simple it is, this is how you’d do it in HubSpot’s Email tool:1) Add a new HTML module to your email template. Don’t worry. The code you put here will be hidden from the actual email, so you don’t have to worry about this showing up in the body of your email. (Click below image to enlarge.)2) Copy and paste Gmail’s HTML markup into your module and replace the image URL (highlighted in red below) with the URL of the image you want to display. (HubSpot Users: Make sure to check “Allow the default contents of this module to be overridden by the content editor” so you can change what image gets featured in individual emails using this template moving forward. Again, we’ll cover that shortly.) read more

How to Motivate Yourself When You’re Absolutely Exhausted

first_img Topics: Off days. We all have them from time to time.Maybe you didn’t sleep well the night before, or perhaps you’re working on a project that isn’t particularly exciting. Or maybe there’s no viable explanation at all, and you’re just straight up not feelin’ it that day.First of all, that’s OK. We can’t be on all the time. Motivation is an ebb and flow: We all have periods of high energy where productivity comes easily, as well as periods of low energy where your work doesn’t come so easily.Get motivation on-demand with free quotes, videos, and songs from our motivational chatbot.But alas … unless we’re physically ill, we’re all expected to show up at work and get our work done regardless of how tired we are or how “meh” we’re feeling.It’s times like these when we need to find that motivation within ourselves. The next time you’re feeling exhausted, unmotivated, or lethargic at work, try one or a few of these 10 ways to get motivated again.10 Ways to Get Motivated When You’re Exhausted1) Just get started.Have you ever found yourself faced with a deadline or a looming task, only to realize that was the perfect time to clean your house or start a new season of 24? Turns out, that’s your brain playing tricks on you.A study by Dr. John Bargh, an award-winning psychology researcher, showed that, before we start on a big project, our brain attempts to simulate real, productive work by focusing on small, mindless tasks. The result? We don’t get started on the tasks that are most meaningful. And the longer we procrastinate, the more anxious we feel.Thankfully, once you get over that hump of just starting already, you’re more likely to work ’til it’s done. That’s a phenomenon called the Zeigarnik Effect, which is best defined as “the tendency to experience intrusive thoughts about an objective that was once pursued and left incomplete.”That’s why, sometimes, we don’t need a particular thing to motivate us — we just need to get started, and a more focused and productive mental state will follow.2) Make or rework your to-do list. (The right way.)When your energy is low, it can be hard to get in that get-stuff-done mindset. So when you feel yourself dragging, stop what you’re doing and take a few minutes to either make a new to-do list or rework the one you already have.After all, studies show that when we write down our goals, we’re more likely to achieve them. This small step can not only help your productivity, but it can also help get rid of that uncomfortable, anxious feeling you get when you procrastinate.There are a lot of different ways to make a to-do list — and what works for you may not work for your neighbor. But it turns out there is one similarity to how most of us write our to-do lists: We tend to start with the easier tasks first, and save the daunting tasks for last. That way, we can cross items off the list faster … and feel good about it.But according to Charles Duhigg, saving the harder stuff for last increases stress and other negative emotions. To more effectively motivate yourself with a to-do list, Duhigg suggests:Thinking of your stretch goal for the day.Writing down this goal at the top of your piece of paper or worksheet.Breaking down your goal into actionable, measurable, and manageable steps. Collaboration/Teamwork Originally published Mar 31, 2016 8:00:00 AM, updated August 31 2017 To get started, think about what part of that broken-down task you can accomplish right now or today, and begin working on it with the more manageable and achievable goal in mind.3) Commit publicly.Accountability works. None of us likes to look bad in front of others. Chances are, if you’ve promised to do something publicly, you’ll be more likely to achieve it. That’s why so many people do things like create public blogs or Instagram accounts to hold themselves accountable for fitness and weight loss goals.You don’t have to go public with your goals to reap the benefits of accountability. You can do it with coworkers, or with friends and family.For example, here at HubSpot, the blogging team holds a daily standup meeting where we come together in the morning to list out what we plan to get done that day. If we find ourselves repeating the same task over a series of consecutive days, it becomes clear to ourselves and our colleagues that we either need to prioritize that task to get it done, or reevaluate whether it really needs doing in the first place. (You can also use collaborative to-do list apps like Trello or Wunderlist to share tasks with others digitally.)Simply recruiting a reliable friend to become your accountability buddy can help, too. Psychology professor Dr. Gala Matthews conducted a study on goal achievement in the workplace worldwide. She found that more than 70% of the participants who sent weekly updates to a friend either completely accomplished their goal or were more than halfway there. Compare that with 35% of those who kept their goals to themselves without even writing them down.4) Change up your location.According to Duhigg’s research, your physical environment is one of the most powerful drivers of our habits and behaviors.Take the six-month study published in The American Journal of Public Health, for example. The scientists that ran the study found that by changing the environment and the way food and drinks were displayed in a large hospital cafeteria, they could get people to eat and drink healthier — without even thinking about it. Just by moving bottled water closer to the cashier and moving soft drinks away from it, the number of soda sales dropped by 11.4%, while bottled water sales increased by 25.8%. Similarly, where you work can affect your motivation levels. Duhigg says this might be because we mentally assign behaviors, habits, and routines to particular locations, like bed for sleeping, desk for working, couch for relaxing. (Another reason taking your lunch break away from your desk can do wonders for your productivity.)Need to really focus? Step away from your desk, move to a workspace with no distractions, and hone in on whatever it is you need to do. That’s what Amanda Sibley, a demand generation manager at HubSpot, told me works for her: “If there is something I must get done in a day — a deck due to our CMO, for example — then I turn off email and shut myself in a room for an hour or so until it’s done.”5) Listen to pump-up music.Music motivates us. Think about it: Why do people listen to music when they go to the gym? Because it gives us energy.We don’t just have an emotional reaction when we listen to music; we also have a physical reaction. Music engages our bodies’ sympathetic nervous systems. Our airway opens, our heart accelerates, and our muscles become primed for movement. When the speed, intensity, or volume of the music rises, our pulse quickens and our breathing accelerates.This is great for physical exercise, of course. But it’s also great for reenergizing you when you’re feeling tired or bored. Not only will it help refocus you, but studies have shown that music can help draw our attention away from the negative aspects of whatever task we’re doing.”During my training and races it became obvious that even in really horrible weather conditions, or when I was physically suffering, that I could use music (and my imagination) to create a parallel universe that had little to do with reality,” said Jacob Jolij, an athlete and researcher from the University of Groningen in the Netherlands. “I used music to stay optimistic and see the glass as perpetually half-full while doing ultra-endurance races. You can use music as a tool when you work out or in your daily life the same way. “So the next time you’re tackling something that doesn’t quite thrill you, consider putting on some happy tunes. If you need some music ideas, try one of these science-backed productivity playlists.6) Meditate.Listening to pump-up jams not your cup of tea? Perhaps meditating is.It’s funny: We rest our aching muscles after a tough workout without a second thought, and yet we expect our brain to work hour after hour, day in and day out. It just doesn’t make sense. Burnout is real, folks.Taking ten or twenty minutes out of your workday to meditate is a great way to use a break time — especially when you find your attention and motivation wavering. According to one study, intensive meditation can help you focus and sustain your attention — even during the most boring of tasks. It also helps boost your mood: A 2012 study found that people who mediated “stayed on tasks longer and made fewer task switches, as well as reporting less negative feedback after task performance.” Never meditated before? You don’t need any experience to enjoy the benefits of meditation — especially with the many apps out there that offer guided meditations. Next time you feel disconnected or unmotivated at work, try using one of these free apps:Headspace: This app gives you 10 free guided meditation sessions. If you end up getting hooked, you can sign up for a monthly subscription.Calm: This app offers over two-dozen guided meditation session for you to choose from that range from a few minutes long to about 30 minutes long. Don’t forget to share this post! AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to Email AppEmail AppShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to MessengerMessengerShare to SlackSlack 7) Talk to a coworker. (Or talk to yourself.)Sometimes, taking a short break to talk with a colleague can be enough to reenergize you for several more hours. In a study of call center workers, those who talked to more coworkers in between calls actually got through calls faster and felt less stressed — all while having the same approval ratings as their peers.If you just need a break from the task at hand, grab a coworker and talk a short walk. If you need some inspiration, choose that coworker wisely, and use the time to bounce ideas off of them. If you’re really struggling, try asking them for advice on how to refocus or reprioritize.If you’re working from home or no one’s available, leave your current workspace (see tip #4: change up your location) and interact with someone — anyone. “Go outside and find a human to interact with — ordering your coffee, running an errand, whatever,” suggests my colleague Corey Wainwright. Or, give yourself a pep talk. Giving yourself advice and encouragement in the second-person voice actually works, according to a study on self-motivation from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. “People are used to receiving and giving advice in the second-person, and they seem to prefer using the second-person pronoun to psych themselves up before engaging in action,” study coauthor Dr. Sanda Dolcos told The Huffington Post. “Self-advice expressed using ‘You’ probably enables people to adopt a broader perspective, considering how a significant other might view the event, and to reproduce the kind of encouragements previously received from others.”8) Eat an energy-boosting snack.Food is fuel for our brains and our bodies. What we eat — and when we eat it — has a direct impact on our performance at work. Recent studies show that willpower is a limited resource and depletes throughout the day, but may be strengthened by the food we eat.To function at its best, your brain needs a constant supply of glucose and fat that come from the right nutritional sources — i.e., not junk food. Our brains work best with about 25 grams of glucose circulating in our blood stream, which is about the amount found in a banana. So when we’re feeling sluggish, snacking on a banana between meals can actually help us reenergize our brainpower.On the other hand, if we were to snack on something high in sugar, like a handful of M&Ms, then we risk a much higher blood sugar spike followed by a crash. While we may feel energized for a short period of time, we’ll ultimately enter into a slump. The result? Low energy and low productivity.The same is true for coffee, which only gives us short caffeine bursts. (If you love coffee, though, try bulletproof coffee, which has a longer-lasting, positive effect on your energy levels.)Healthy snacks that’ll supercharge your brainpower and help you gain energy when you’re tired include bananas, yogurt, blueberries, avocados, olive oil, salmon, broccoli, eggplant, and dark, leafy greens. (Check out our infographic on “the productivity diet” to learn why these foods help you focus.)9) Move your body.Whether it’s spending some quality time at the gym or simply going for a short walk between meetings, regular exercise can do wonders for your health, your happiness, and your productivity and energy levels at work. In fact, researchers have found that people who exercise during normal working hours are actually more productive at work, even if they technically log fewer hours.Another study out of the University of Georgia examined whether exercise can be used to treat fatigue. It showed that even low-intensity exercise can significantly help feelings of fatigue.“A lot of people are overworked and not sleeping enough,” said Patrick O’Connor, co-director of the university’s exercise psychology laboratory. “Exercise is a way for people to feel more energetic. There’s a scientific basis for it, and there are advantages to it compared to things like caffeine and energy drinks.”Here are 10 ideas for sneaking in exercise at work without looking silly, from taking short “active breaks” to replacing your desk chair with a stability ball.10) Take a power nap.Another way to unleash your brain’s natural energy? Take a power nap. Researchers have found there are clear benefits to napping, including increased alertness after your nap. The key is doing it right. In other words, napping for the right amount of time, and at the right time of day.According to Sleep Expert Dr. Phyllis Zee of Northwestern University, the best naps are between 1 p.m. 3 p.m. and last between 20 and 40 minutes.That afternoon timing is best for your body clock, whereas napping later in the day can affect how well you sleep that night. Taking a nap longer than 40 minutes can cause your brain to slow-wave (deeper) sleep, which’ll leave you waking up in a state of confusion — the opposite of what you were trying to solve for.Then, once you’re up from your nap, get back to it.What if it doesn’t work?If you’ve tried some of these tactics and none of them are helping you refocus and reenergize, be careful: You might be burned out.Burnout is defined as a state of chronic stress that leads to physical and emotional exhaustion, cynicism and detachment, and feelings of ineffectiveness and lack of accomplishment. Although people experience burnout differently, a telltale sign is when you’re experiencing the trifecta of exhaustion, cynicism, and inefficacy all at once. Remember: It’s OK to take your foot off the gas pedal every once in a while and to adjust your work output to your current motivation level.But if you’re feeling the symptoms of burnout, take care to dedicate specific time for unplugging and relaxing — and even take a vacation if you can. It’s good for you, and even your boss would agree: 91% of business leaders believe their employees return from vacations recharged and ready to work more effectively.Want more? Read 28 of the Best Motivational TED Talk Videos to Inspire You.Get motivation on-demand with free quotes, videos, and songs from our motivational chatbot.last_img read more